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Posted 27 February 2006 - 06:04 PM

Query: (southern calamary) or (Sepioteuthis australis) - These records are taken from the Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts.

Record 1 of 24

TI: Title
The role of hatchling size in generating the intrinsic size-at-age
variability of cephalopods: extending the Forsythe Hypothesis

AU: Author
Pecl, GT*; Steer, MA; Hodgson, KE
SO: Source
Marine and freshwater research [Mar. Freshwat. Res.]. Vol. 55, no. 4,
pp. 387-394. 2004.
AB: Abstract
Cephalopods are characterized by extreme variability in size-at-age,
with much of this variation attributed to effects of temperature and
food. However, even siblings reared under identical conditions display
a wide range of sizes after a period of growth. Hatchling size may
represent a source of variation encompassed within adult size-at-age
data within a given cohort (variation in hatchling size suggests that
a cohort's growth trajectory will have a 'staggered start') and, as
hatchling size also varies as a function of incubation temperature
this will vary across broader scales (i.e. between cohorts).
Field-hatchling size data for Sepioteuthis australis were used in
simple deterministic simulations, extending Forsythe's (1993)
temperature hypothesis, to investigate the influence of hatchling size
on adult size-at-age variability. Within a cohort, our growth
projections suggest that after 90 days, a large hatchling growing at a
specific constant percentage daily growth rate, would be approximately
double the size of the small hatchling growing at exactly the same
rate, irrespective of the growth rate used. When considering growth of
different cohorts, decreases in hatchling size, as temperatures
increase during a spring-summer spawning season, may be partially
counteracting the 'Forsythe-effect' of increased growth rate at higher
PY: Publication Year

Record 2 of 24

TI: Title
The effect of variability in growth on somatic condition and
reproductive status in the southern calamary Sepioteuthis australis

AU: Author
Ho, JD*; Moltschaniwskyj, NA; Carter, CG
SO: Source
Marine and freshwater research [Mar. Freshwat. Res.]. Vol. 55, no. 4,
pp. 423-428. 2004.
AB: Abstract
The aim of the present study was to determine how the lifetime growth
rates of adult southern calamary Sepioteuthis australis related to
somatic and reproductive condition. A hierarchy of biological levels
was explored: whole-animal, muscle fibre, and proximal condition.
Evidence at all biological levels suggested that allocation of energy
given to growth and reproduction was gender-specific. Females may not
be allocating the same level of energy to somatic growth due to a
greater requirement to re-allocate energy for reproductive growth.
There was evidence that faster growing males were in better somatic
and reproductive condition. Both males and females in better somatic
condition were also in better reproductive condition. Fast growth
rates by individuals were achieved primarily by muscle fibre growth,
rather than production of new fibres. However, mantle muscle
instantaneous growth rates (assessed through RNA: protein ratio)
decreased as males became larger and more reproductively mature; no
association was evident in females. An inverse correlation between
gonad size and muscle instantaneous growth rates in females suggested
energy was being directed away from somatic growth and towards
reproductive growth. There was evidence that lifetime growth rates
could predict the reproductive or somatic condition of adult calamary,
but this was gender-specific.
PY: Publication Year

Record 3 of 24

TI: Title
The in situ relationships between season of hatching, growth and
condition in the southern calamary, Sepioteuthis australis

AU: Author
Pecl, GT*
SO: Source
Marine and freshwater research [Mar. Freshwat. Res.]. Vol. 55, no. 4,
pp. 429-438. 2004.
AB: Abstract
This paper examines seasonal patterns in growth and condition of
Sepioteuthis australis from temperate waters of Tasmania (Australia).
Growth was described by a power function and was fast for a temperate
species. Sepioteuthis australis is an annual species, however spawning
and hatching of juveniles appears to occur all year round. Analysis of
individual juvenile growth demonstrated a correlation between
seasonally increasing temperatures and progressively faster growth.
Season of hatching also had a clear effect on adult growth;
summer-hatched individuals were larger at 170-190 days of age compared
with winter-hatched individuals. The length-mantle weight relationship
of adults was also dependent on season of hatching, with individuals
hatched in summer and spring having heavier mantles at a given length
than those hatched in winter or autumn. Differential rates of growth
or varying levels of condition, or perhaps both, may affect the
survivorship of individuals. Growth, condition and potentially
lifespan of S. australis are dependent on environmental factors, with
the dynamic nature of oceanographical conditions on the east coast of
Tasmania resulting in a highly variable and fluctuating population
PY: Publication Year

Record 4 of 24

TI: Title
Effects of genetic and environmental factors on growth of southern
calamary, Sepioteuthis australis, from southern Australia and northern
New Zealand

AU: Author
Triantafillos, L*
SO: Source
Marine and freshwater research [Mar. Freshwat. Res.]. Vol. 55, no. 4,
pp. 439-446. 2004.
AB: Abstract
Extreme plasticity in growth is consistently found by ageing studies
on squid. This study examined the contribution that genetic and
environmental factors had on growth of the southern calamary
(Sepioteuthis australis) from sites in southern Western Australia,
South Australia and New Zealand. In all, 147 adults, comprising three
sympatric genetic types (two parental taxa and one hybrid), were aged
by counting microincrements in statoliths. Estimates of age ranged
from 121 to 268 days and varied with mantle length, sex, genetic type
and region. Males grew much faster and attained a larger size than
females. Significant differences were also detected between genetic
types, with the hybrids always growing faster (at least 60% larger at
150 days old) than the two parental taxa, a phenomenon commonly
referred to as hybrid vigour. Spatial differences in growth were also
detected, with individuals from Western Australia usually growing
faster than those from South Australia and New Zealand. Possible
explanations for these growth patterns are discussed.
PY: Publication Year

Record 5 of 24

TI: Title
Multiple paternity in field- and captive-laid egg strands of
Sepioteuthis australis (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae)

AU: Author
van Camp, LM; Donnellan, SC; Dyer, AR; Fairweather, PG
SO: Source
PY: Publication Year

Record 6 of 24

TI: Title
Reproductive Behavior in the Squid Sepioteuthis australis From South
Australia: Ethogram of Reproductive Body Patterns

AU: Author
Jantzen, TM; Havenhand, JN
SO: Source
Biological Bulletin, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole [Biol.
Bull. Mar. Biol. Lab. Woods Hole]. Vol. 204, no. 3, pp. 290-304. 1 Jun
AB: Abstract
Squids use a diverse range of body patterns for communication. Each
pattern consists of a series of chromatic, postural, and locomotor
components that are under neural control and can change within
fractions of a second. Here we describe an ethogram of 48 body pattern
components from in situ observations of reproductively active
Sepioteuthis australis. In addition, we identify the total time and
average duration that each component is shown, to a resolution of 1 s.
Our results suggest that only a few components (e.g., "Golden
epaulettes," "Stitchwork fins," and "Rigid arms") are temporally
common, that is, shown for more than 80% of the time. In contrast to
the component classification reported for other species of squid, for
this species we suggest a classification system consisting of "short
acute" (lasting for < 10 s); some of these same components were also
classified as "medium acute" (11-60 s) or "chronic" (> 60 s). Several
body patterning components were previously unreported, as were some of
the combinations observed. The significance of these patterning
components is discussed within the context of the associated behaviors
of the squid on the spawning grounds.
PY: Publication Year

Record 7 of 24

TI: Title
Reproductive Behavior in the Squid Sepioteuthis australis From South
Australia: Interactions on the Spawning Grounds

AU: Author
Jantzen, TM; Havenhand, JN
SO: Source
Biological Bulletin, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole [Biol.
Bull. Mar. Biol. Lab. Woods Hole]. Vol. 204, no. 3, pp. 305-317. 1 Jun
AB: Abstract
Squid behavior is synonymous with distinctive body patterns, postures,
and movements that constitute a complex visual communication system.
These communications are particularly obvious during reproduction.
They are important for sexual selection and have been identified as a
potential means of species differentiation. Here we present a detailed
account of copulation, mating, and egg deposition behaviors from in
situ observations of the squid Sepioteuthis australis from South
Australia. We identified four mating types from 85 separate mating
attempts: "Male-upturned mating" (64% of mating attempts); "Sneaker
mating" (33%); "Male-parallel" (2%); and "Head-to-head" (1%).
Intervals between successive egg deposition behaviors were clearly
bimodal, with modes at 2.5 s and 70.0 s. Ninety-three percent of egg
capsules contained 3 or 4 eggs (mean = 3.54), and each egg cluster
contained between 218 and 1922 egg capsules (mean = 893.9). The
reproductive behavior of S. australis from South Australia was
different from that described for other cephalopod species. More
importantly, comparison between these results and those for other
populations of S. australis suggests that behavior may differ from one
population to another.
PY: Publication Year

Record 8 of 24

TI: Title
The dynamics of the summer-spawning population of the loliginid squid
Sepioteuthis australis in Tasmania, Australia - a conveyor belt of

AU: Author
Jackson, GD; Pecl, G
SO: Source
ICES Journal of Marine Science [ICES J. Mar. Sci.]. Vol. 60, no. 2,
pp. 290-296. Apr 2003.
AB: Abstract
The population dynamics of the loliginid squid Sepioteuthis australis
was examined on a fine temporal scale during a 2-month period of
rising sea-surface temperatures on the summer inshore spawning grounds
of Coles Bay, Tasmania, Australia. Samples were taken regularly
(generally weekly) to discern any short-term population changes in
age, growth or reproductive parameters. There was no change in the
mean age, mantle length or weight of males or females through the
study period (November and December 1996). This indicated that instead
of following one or a few discrete cohorts of spawning individuals,
there were continuous waves of new individuals moving onto the
spawning beds, which may be best described by a conveyer belt of new
recruits. There was an abrupt and significant difference in the mean
oviduct egg size in females caught between November and December but
the factors responsible for this remain unknown. Few squid showed
evidence of recent feeding, suggesting that they move off the spawning
grounds to feed.
PY: Publication Year

Record 9 of 24

TI: Title
Are bigger calamary Sepioteuthis australis hatchlings more likely to
survive? A study based on statolith dimensions

AU: Author
Steer, MA; Pecl, GT; Moltschaniwskyj, NA
SO: Source
Marine ecology progress series [Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.]. Vol. 261, pp.
175-182. 2003.
AB: Abstract
To determine whether any size-selective processes were operating
throughout the life history of squid, this study set out to ascertain
whether bigger hatchlings are more likely to survive to adulthood.
This was achieved by comparing natal statolith dimensions between
recently hatched (< 13 h old) and successfully recruited adult
Sepioteuthis australis. The squid statolith (analogous to the teleost
otolith) retains a check associated with hatching, and the natal
radius (NR) at hatching had a strong linear relationship to dorsal
mantle length (ML). Hatchlings were collected using emergent traps
from October 2001 to February 2002 on natural spawning grounds located
on the east coast of Tasmania. Hatchling size was extremely variable
ranging from 4.3 to 7.3 mm (ML), with significantly larger squids
hatching out in November and the smallest in February. From February
to August, adults were collected from the same bay and aged using
validated daily rings in the statolith and those adults estimated to
have been born between October and February were included in the
analysis. In all but 1 mo, a significant difference between the NR
size distributions of the hatchlings and adults was detected due to
low numbers of adults with small NRs. This indicated that smaller
hatchlings were less likely to recruit, suggesting that there is an
element of size-mediated mortality operating on populations of S.
PY: Publication Year

Record 10 of 24

TI: Title
Currents as environmental constraints on the behavior, energetics and
distribution of squid and cuttlefish

AU: Author
O'Dor, RK; Adamo, S; Aitken, JP; Andrade, Y; Finn, J; Hanlon, RT;
Jackson, GD
SO: Source
Bulletin of Marine Science [Bull. Mar. Sci.]. Vol. 71, no. 2, pp.
601-617. Sep 2002.
AB: Abstract
The energy available in an ecosystem can often be smoothly matched to
physiological requirements through behavioral changes. Tracking
projects in Spencer Gulf and Great Barrier Reef (GBR) Lagoon,
Australia, compared the energetics of tropical/temperate squids
(Sepioteuthis lessoniana and Sepioteuthis australis) and cuttlefish
(Sepia apama) using radio-acoustic positioning telemetry (RAPT).
Distinctive activity patterns indicated that tidal currents were key
environmental influences, as important as temperature, diel cycles and
foraging. Continuous position and mantle pressure data from nature
correlated with visually and video documented behaviors. Cuttlefish
were diurnal, relatively inactive and spent their time within benthic
boundary layers, hovering near or under structures. Squid, in
contrast, were continuously active, seeking out particular current
regimes to conserve energy using slope soaring tactics previously seen
in Loligo forbesi. These behaviors illustrate an energetic tradeoff
between neutral and negative buoyancy for access to prey in currents.
In the high current GBR site, squid concentrated in the boundary
layers of floating `squid aggregating devices' (SADs). Rheotactic
behavior has been well characterized for fishes in streams and some
marine systems, and is briefly reviewed in the context of cephalopod
examples to define rheological guilds. Fast-growing, high-energy
cephalopods provide a powerful paradigm for assessing energy transfers
in ecosystems.
PY: Publication Year

Record 11 of 24

TI: Title
Preliminary field observations of mating and spawning in the squid
Sepioteuthis australis

AU: Author
Jantzen, TM; Havenhand, JN
SO: Source
Bulletin of Marine Science [Bull. Mar. Sci.]. Vol. 71, no. 2, pp.
1073-1080. Sep 2002.
AB: Abstract
Sepioteuthis australis is a moderately large ( approximately 30 cm
mantle length) teuthoid squid, common throughout the coastal waters of
southern Australia and New Zealand (Mangold and Clarke, 1998).
Although prevalent throughout this region, no observations of
copulation have been reported for this species, and spawning behavior
has been reported only once in situ [as S. bilineata (Larcombe and
Russell, 1971, see Mangold and Clarke, 1998)]. The object of the
present note is to contribute to the knowledge of mating and spawning
behavior of S. australis. The observations described here are the
result of preliminary observations at the latter stages of the
spawning period of this little-studied species. We provide a brief
overview of S. australis mating and spawning behavior in the field,
together with an insight into the proposed research that will be
conducted on this species in future spawning seasons.
PY: Publication Year

Record 12 of 24

TI: Title
Effects of hatching season on the growth rate, reproductive-somatic
investment and spawning biology of Sepioteuthis australis in the
temperate waters of southern Australia

AU: Author
Pecl, G
SO: Source
Bulletin of Marine Science [Bull. Mar. Sci.]. Vol. 71, no. 2, p. 1135.
Sep 2002.
AB: Abstract
This paper is a synthesis of several studies examining the influence
of hatching season on growth rates, patterns of reproductive-somatic
investment and the spawning biology of the temperate water squid,
Sepioteuthis australis, from the east coast of Tasmania, Australia.
Hatching season was determined for 400 squid using back-calculated
dates of hatching derived from validated statolith age estimations.
Growth rate of S. australis was strongly influenced by hatching
season, with individuals hatched in warmer seasons having a final size
that could surpass that of earlier hatched (and therefore older)
individuals. There was also evidence that the effect of temperature
was not limited to initial growth stages, instead temperature
continued to influence growth patterns throughout the adult life
cycle. These seasonal differences in growth translate into substantial
variations in size-at-age, for example, the mean total weight of
summer hatched squid at 170-190 d of age was 1002g ( plus or minus 98
g SE), compared to 632 g ( plus or minus 27 g SE) in winter hatched
squid. Fast growing summer-hatched females caught during winter had
relatively heavy mantles but low gonado-somatic indices and appeared
to be laying relatively small batches of eggs. Slower growing
winter-hatched females had lighter mantles, gonado-somatic indices
almost double that of summer-hatched females and were laying much
larger batches of eggs. The waters off the east coast of Tasmania are
derived from a mixture of nutrient-rich subantarctic and nutrient-poor
subtropical water masses with considerable intra- and inter-annual
variability in the broad patterns of oceanic circulation and
productivity. Given that the growth, patterns of repro-somatic
investment and spawning biology, and potentially life span of
Sepioteuthis australis are responsive to environmental factors, the
dynamic nature of oceanographic conditions on the east coast of
Tasmania are likely to result in high variability in both the
population structure and stock-recruitment relationship.
PY: Publication Year

Record 13 of 24

TI: Title
An assessment of the use of short-term closures to protect spawning
southern calamary aggregations from fishing pressure in Tasmania,

AU: Author
Moltschaniwskyj, N; Pecl, G; Lyle, J
SO: Source
Bulletin of Marine Science [Bull. Mar. Sci.]. Vol. 71, no. 1, pp.
501-514. Jul 2002.
AB: Abstract
Fishing effort for southern calamary in Tasmania focuses on the
spawning aggregations that occur in shallow sheltered bays over the
austral spring and early summer. This paper explores the effect of two
2-wk fishing closures in Great Oyster Bay, Tasmania to protect
spawning populations of the southern calamary squid (Sepioteuthis
australis) from fishing pressure. In the period before the first 2-wk
closure, mature adult squid were present on the inshore seagrass beds
in which they lay their eggs. However, despite the high reproductive
status of the females present very low numbers of eggs were laid.
During the first of the two closures, densities of eggs increased
six-fold, suggesting that either the closure provided protection to
the spawning aggregation or promoted an increase in spawning
activities. An increase in spawning activity did not occur during the
second closure, possibly because the reproductive condition of females
was declining by this time. However, densities of newly laid eggs on
the seagrass beds remained constant during the following 6 wks. Daily
CPUE information suggested that closing Great Oyster Bay to fishing
did not result in increased numbers of squid aggregating in the
spawning areas. Despite increased commercial fishing effort throughout
Tasmania, CPUE data indicates higher catches of squid were landed in
Great Oyster Bay. However the reduced contribution of Great Oyster Bay
to total catches in Tasmania over the study period suggests the short
closures were of value in protecting the spawning aggregation.
PY: Publication Year

Record 14 of 24

TI: Title
Description and quantification of developmental abnormalities in a
natural Sepioteuthis australis spawning population (Mollusca:

AU: Author
Gowland, FC; Moltschaniwskyj, NA; Steer, MA
SO: Source
Marine ecology progress series [Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.]. Vol. 243, pp.
133-141. 2002.
AB: Abstract
Eggs of the southern calamary Sepioteuthis australis were sampled from
spawning sites off eastern Tasmania, Australia, during an austral
spring/summer spawning season. At fortnightly intervals, 3 unfouled
and 3 biofouled egg strands were sampled from 6 to 23 distinct egg
masses (N sub(eggs) = 2649). Highly significant variation was noted
between sample dates in the frequency of unfertilised eggs,
developmental abnormalities and egg mortalities. Unfertilised eggs
were only found during late October and early November and represented
a mean 2.12 plus or minus 1.25% SE and 0.58 plus or minus 0.58% SE
eggs per strand respectively. Frequency of abnormality varied
significantly between sample dates and ranged from 8.35 plus or minus
1.86% SE eggs per strand in late November to 0.92 plus or minus 0.41%
SE in late December. Abnormalities were arbitrarily categorised as
defects in external yolk sac morphology, reduced embryonic size,
mantle deformities, eye deformities and arm deformities. Defects in
external yolk sac morphology were found throughout the spawning season
and accounted for 46.3% of all abnormalities. Incidence of mortality
varied significantly between sample dates and ranged from 1.40 plus or
minus 0.68% SE per strand in late October to 11.61 plus or minus 3.23%
SE in early January. Highly significant correlation was noted between
incidence of developmental abnormality and within-strand egg position.
Biofouled egg strands were characterised by comparatively low
incidences of unfertilised and dead eggs. The influences of
environment, egg position and biofouling upon embryonic development in
S. australis are discussed.
PY: Publication Year

Record 15 of 24

TI: Title
Temporal variability in embryonic development and mortality in the
southern calamary Sepioteuthis australis: A field assessment

AU: Author
Steer, MA; Moltschaniwskyj, NA; Gowland, FC
SO: Source
Marine ecology progress series [Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.]. Vol. 243, pp.
143-150. 2002.
AB: Abstract
This study describes the incidence of embryonic mortality and
differential development in southern calamary Sepioteuthis australis
eggs. Late-stage S. australis egg strands harbouring multiple embryos
close to hatching were sampled from shallow (< 4 m) Tasmanian
spawning grounds from early November 2000 to January 2001.
Sepioteuthis australis embryos were found to develop asynchronously
within individual egg strands with proximal embryos developing slower
and suffering higher mortality than their distal siblings. The
magnitude of asynchrony, however, differed throughout the season with
greater within-strand differences observed when embryos were exposed
to broader incubation temperatures. Unexpectedly, embryos developed
more synchronously within biologically fouled strands and displayed a
significantly lower incidence of mortality compared to those
developing in unfouled strands. Embryonic mortality was initially low
(4%) and significantly increased to 20% in late November, remaining
above 10% until late December. This dramatic increase in mortality was
not strongly associated with increasing water temperatures, but
coincided with a period of heavy rainfall alluding to potential
salinity effects.
PY: Publication Year

Record 16 of 24

TI: Title
Lipid and fatty acid composition of the mantle and digestive gland of
four Southern Ocean squid species: implications for food-web studies

AU: Author
Phillips, KL; Nichols, PD; Jackson, GD
SO: Source
Antarctic science [Antarct. Sci.]. Vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 212-220. 2002.
AB: Abstract
Lipid content, lipid class and fatty acid composition of four Southern
Ocean cephalopod species - the myopsid Sepioteuthis australis and
three oegopsids, Gonatus antarcticus, Moroteuthis robsoni and
Todarodes spp. - were analysed. The lipid content of the digestive
gland was consistently greater than that of the mantle, and was an
order of magnitude greater in oegopsid species. The lipid class and
fatty acid composition of the mantle and digestive gland also differed
markedly in each species. Digestive gland lipid is likely to be of
dietary origin, and large amounts of lipid in the digestive gland of
oegopsids may accumulate over time. Thus the digestive gland is a rich
source of fatty acid dietary tracers and may provide a history of
dietary intake. However, the absolute amount of dietary lipid in the
digestive gland of oegopsid species exceeds the absolute lipid content
of mantle tissue. Therefore the overall lipid "signature" of an
oegopsid may more closely resemble its prey species rather than its
mantle tissue. When lipid techniques are used in dietary analysis of
teuthophagous predators, squid may not be represented by a unique
signature in analyses and their importance in the diets of predators
may be underestimated.
PY: Publication Year

Record 17 of 24

TI: Title
Allozyme analysis reveals a complex population structure in the
southern calamary Sepioteuthis australis from Australia and New

AU: Author
Triantafillos, L; Adams, M
SO: Source
Marine Ecology Progress Series [Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.]. Vol. 212, pp.
193-209. 2001.
AB: Abstract
Allozyme electrophoresis was used to investigate species boundaries
and population genetic structure within the southern calamary
Sepioteuthis australis Quoy and Gaimard. Samples collected from 17
localities around southern Australia and northern New Zealand were
examined for allozyme variation at 49 loci. Of 13 polymorphic loci
detected, 7 were sufficiently variable to be useful as routine genetic
markers of population structure. There was little or no genetic
differentiation across the entire range sampled at 5 of these 7 loci.
In marked contrast, the allozyme data at 2 loci (Fdp and PepD)
unequivocally sorted all individuals into 1 of 3 genetic types, the
geographic distributions of which exhibited a markedly non-random
pattern. One type was mainly found near the western and eastern limits
of the sampled area, the other type predominantly in the intervening
region. Where these 2 types overlapped, a third hybrid-type was found
at frequencies predicted under Hardy-Weinberg expectations. The 2
most-likely explanations for these data are: (1) there are 2 taxa
within S. australis which produce only F sub(1) hybrids wherever they
overlap, or (2) the 2 loci Fdp and PepD are tightly linked and thus
are not independent measures of population structure. Preliminary
morphological and reproductive data support the hypothesis of 2 taxa,
while mitochondrial DNA-sequence data are inconclusive. It is argued
that some combination of the 2 explanations may be operating.
Regardless of the final outcome, the data indicate that there are a
number of discrete stocks of S. australis in this region, a result at
variance with current management perspectives on this important
PY: Publication Year

Record 18 of 24

TI: Title
Flexible reproductive strategies in tropical and temperate
Sepioteuthis squids.

AU: Author
Pecl, G
SO: Source
Mar. Biol. Vol. 138, no. 1, pp. 93-101. 2001.
AB: Abstract
A major difficulty confronting the determination of cephalopod
reproductive life history is assessing over what portion of the life
span an individual is reproductively mature and actively depositing
eggs. This paper assesses the potential of the tropical Sepioteuthis
lessoniana and two genetic types of the temperate Sepioteuthis
australis, to spawn multiple batches of eggs at discrete times
throughout the adult life span. This is achieved by histological
examination of the ovarian gametogenic cycle and detailed
morphological assessments of the reproductive system, in conjunction
with other biological information. The genetic type of S. australis
found at the northern limits of its Australian distribution showed
evidence of a high correlation between body size and quantity of
mature eggs, suggesting that eggs may be accumulating to be laid in a
single batch. Although maturation was also a sizerelated process in S.
lessoniana and Tasmanian S. australis, oviduct size was not correlated
with body weight in mature females, which is indicative of multiple
spawning. Further supporting evidence includes relatively low
gonadosomatic indices, the heavier weight of the ovary relative to the
oviduct, and the feeding activity of mature animals. Mature S.
lessoniana and S. australis individuals were present at each location
over very wide age and size ranges. In Tasmanian waters, there were
distinct seasonal differences in the reproductive biology of S.
australis. Summer-caught individuals had much higher gonadosomatic
indices and may have been laying larger batches of eggs compared with
winter-caught individuals. Summer-caught females also showed a
negative correlation between egg size and egg number within the
oviduct, suggesting that some individuals were producing fewer, larger
eggs and others many smaller eggs. Evidence suggests that considerable
flexibility is inherent in the reproductive strategy of both S.
lessoniana and S. australis.
PY: Publication Year

Record 19 of 24

TI: Title
Cephalopod diet of the Australian fur seal: Variation due to location,
season and sample type

AU: Author
Gales, R; Pemberton, D; Lu, CC; Clarke, MR
SO: Source
Australian journal of marine and freshwater research. Melbourne [AUST.
J. MAR. FRESHWAT. RES.]. Vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 657-671. 1993.
AB: Abstract
In Tasmanian waters, Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus preyed on 11
species of cephalopods, predominantly Nototodarus gouldi followed by
Sepioteuthis australis and Sepia apama. Cephalopods were more
important in the diet of the seals in Bass Strait than in southern
Tasmanian waters. The species composition in the diet of the seals in
these two areas also differed, with the seals in Bass Strait eating
mainly N. gouldi, whereas the seals in southern waters fed on benthic
octopods. The seals preyed on mainly adult cephalopods over the
continental shelf. The size range and species composition of the diet
varied according to the sample types, with faeces containing only
small beaks relative to regurgitates and stomachs. Errors associated
with sample types and application of regression equations are
PY: Publication Year

Record 20 of 24

TI: Title
Partial purification and characterization of the
4-nitrophenylphosphatase activity of invertebrate photoreceptive
microvilli. Absence of in vitro rhodopsin phosphatase activity.

AU: Author
Trowell, SC
SO: Source
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, B. Vol. 89B, no. 2, pp.
285-297. 1988.
AB: Abstract
A 4-nitrophenylphosphatase (4-NPPase) previously localized to the
photoreceptive microvilli of a crab is shown to require mu M levels of
calcium plus mM magnesium for maximal activity. The
phosphomonoesterase, is distinct from the ATPase. GTPase and inositol
trisphosphatase activities present in retinal homogenates. A 4-NPPase
of squid retina has similar properties to the crab enzyme. The
4-NPPases of both species are homodimers with subunit molecular masses
of approx. 35 kDa. Crude and partially purified crab 4-NPPase
preparations do not dephosphorylate squid rhodopsin but phosphatase
activity was detected towards a 48,000 phosphoprotein of crab retina.
PY: Publication Year

Record 21 of 24

TI: Title
Pilot survey of recreational fishing activity in Port Hughes, March to
May 1985.

AU: Author
Hill, KL
AB: Abstract
The Research Branch of the Department of Fisheries conducted a three
month trial survey of recreational fishing activity in the Port Hughes
area during March to May 1985. The project concentrated on the jetty
and boat ramp activity at Port Hughes but incorporated occasional
surveys of Wallaroo. At Port Hughes most recreational boat anglers
were fishing for King George whiting (Sillaginodes punctatus ) and it
accounted for the largest proportion of the catch. Squid (Sepioteuthis
australis ), tommy fuff (Arripis georgianus ) and garfish
(Hyporhamphus melanochir ) accounted for 89% of the total Port Hughes
jetty catch during March to May 1985.
PY: Publication Year

Record 22 of 24

TI: Title
Spearfishing competitions in South Australia (1983/84). 2. Australian
skindiving convention.

AU: Author
Johnson, JE
AB: Abstract
Three shore-based spearfishing heats were held at coastal sites on the
Fleurieu Peninsula, South Australia, between 28 December 1983 and 5
January 1984 as part of the thirty-second Australian Skindiving
Convention. A total of 550 fish from 48 species with a total weight of
336.7 kg was landed. The five most common species by number landed
were sea sweep, Scorpis aequipinnis , calamary, Sepioteuthis australis
, banded sweep, Scorpis georgianus , red mullet, Upeneichthys porosus
and longsnouted boarfish, Pentaceropsis recurvirostris , and they
accounted for 60% of the catch.
PY: Publication Year

Record 23 of 24

TI: Title
Results of otter trawling by the F.V. Battle Axe in central Victorian
coastal waters

AU: Author
SO: Source
Jan 1979., 17 p., Fish. Wildl. Pap. Vict., (no. 18)
AB: Abstract
The trawling results indicate that there are productive trawl grounds
between Cape Otway and Wilsons Promontory, particularly between
Flinders and Cape Liptrap. These grounds once supported a seasonal
Danish seine fishery and are capable of supporting an otter trawl
fishery throughout the year. Because of the versatility of otter
trawling, pelagic species formed a large part of the catch. Flatheads
(Platycephalidae) (36% of the total catch), school whiting Sillago
bassensis (5%) and edible sharks (5%) were the main demersal species
caught, and snoek Leionura atun (21%), squid Nototodarus gouldi and
calamaries Sepioteuthis australis (3%) and jack mackerel Trachurus
declivis (2%) were the main pelagic species. The boat and trawling
equipment are described briefly. Monthly catch rates for the main
marketable species caught are compared between years and sub-areas of
the region fished.
PY: Publication Year

Record 24 of 24

TI: Title
Interesting squid catches during bight fish survey
AU: Author
SO: Source
Aust. Fish., 38(10), 9-10, (1979)
AB: Abstract
During a survey of demersal and pelagic fish resources of the Great
Australian Bight from February to April 1979 many of the trawl
stations also produced squid. The arrow squid (Notododarus gouldi )
was most common in water 80 to 100 m deep with surface temperatures of
about 20 C. The southern calamary (Sepioteuthis australis ) was caught
in shallow inshore waters, whereas Rossia australis frequently was in
pelagic areas. Information is given of predators and prey of the squid
and the distribution of some species and their known migratory nature
is discussed.
PY: Publication Year
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