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Dosidicus Gigas (jumbo Squid)

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Posted 27 February 2006 - 06:22 PM

Query: TI="Dosidicus gigas" - Records obtained from Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts

Record 1 of 47

Tagging studies on the jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) in the Gulf of
California, Mexico

AU: Author
Markaida, U; Rosenthal, JJC; Gilly, WF
SO: Source
Fishery Bulletin [Fish. Bull.]. Vol. 103, no. 1, pp. 219-226. Jan

Dosidicus gigas, the only species in the genus Dosidicus, is commonly
known as the jumbo squid, jumbo flying squid, or Humboldt squid. It is
the largest ommastrephid squid and is endemic to the Eastern Pacific,
ranging from northern California to southern Chile and to 140 degree W
at the equator. During the last two decades it has become an extremely
important fisheries resource in the Gulf of California, around the
Costa Rica Dome and off Peru. It is also an active predator that
undoubtedly has an important impact on local ecology in areas where it
is abundant. Ommastrephid squid, including the jumbo squid, are
largely pelagic and may migrate long distances as part their life
cycle (Mangold, 1976). A general pattern of long-distance migration
for the jumbo squid over its entire range was proposed by Nesis (1983)
and smaller-scale migrations within the Gulf of California has been
proposed according to the distribution of the fishery during 1979-80
(Klett, 1982; Ehrhardt et al., 1983). During this period squid were
reported to enter the Gulf from the Pacific in January, to reach their
northernmost limit (29 Delta GN) by April, and to remain in the
central Gulf from May through August; the high concentrations were
found along the western (Baja California) coast. From September onward
these squid appear to migrate eastward to the Mexican mainland coast
and then southwards, to the mouth of the Gulf back into the Pacific
(Klett, 1982; Ehrhardt et al., 1983). Since 1994 a seasonal pattern in
the jumbo squid fishery has emerged in which large squid are abundant
central Gulf essentially all year. During November to May, the fishery
is centered in the area of Guaymas Sta. Rosalia the fishery operates
from May to November, which is also the period of peak landings. These
generally reciprocal landing patterns are consistent with the
abundance patterns described by Klett (1982), although the exact
migrations proposed by Ehrhardt et al. (1983) have never been directly
observed (Morales-Bojorquez et al., 2001). All these studies
concerning jumbo squid migrations have relied on analyses of landing
statistics and catch data acquired by fishing stations on commercial
squid jigging vessels. Although migratory patterns of several
ommastrephid species of commercial importance have been directly
demonstrated with conventional tag-and-recapture methods (Nagasawa et
al., 1993), to our knowledge jumbo squid has not been studied in this
manner. Given the commercial and ecological importance of this
species, such studies would be valuable. This paper describes
conventional tag-and-recapture experiments on jumbo squid in the
central Gulf of California. Tag-return rates were higher than in most
previous studies of other ommastrephid species, and seasonal
migrations between the Sta. Rosalia and Guaymas areas were directly
demonstrated. Growth rates were also directly determined for the first
PY: Publication Year

Record 2 of 47

Quantifying light-fishing for Dosidicus gigas in the eastern Pacific
using satellite remote sensing

AU: Author
Waluda, CM; Yamashiro, C; Elvidge, CD; Hobson, VR; Rodhouse, PG
SO: Source
Remote Sensing of Environment [Remote Sens. Environ.]. Vol. 91, no. 2,
pp. 129-133. May 2004.

The distribution and abundance of the fleet targeting Jumbo flying
squid (Dosidicus gigas) in the Eastern Pacific is examined during the
1999 fishery season. The commercial fishery consists of a
multinational jigging fleet, which fish at night using powerful lights
to attract squid. The emission of light from these vessels can be
observed using satellite-derived imagery obtained by the United States
Defence Meteorological Satellite Program-Operational Linescan System
(DMSP-OLS). In order to quantify fishing effort using lights, data on
the distribution and abundance of vessels were obtained via satellite
tracking using the ARGOS system. The distribution of the fishery as
derived from light signatures was found to closely resemble that
derived from ship location data. By using ARGOS data to calibrate
DMSP-OLS images, we are able to estimate fishing effort in terms of
the 'area illuminated' by the fishing fleet. Light signatures derived
from DMSP-OLS were successfully used to quantify fishing effort,
estimating the number of vessels fishing to within +/-2 in 85 out of
103 satellite images (83%). High seas fishing was also quantified,
with light signatures corresponding to a single fishing vessel
observed in 11 out of 103 satellite passes during the fishery season
(July-December 1999). This study examines how much light (in terms of
area) is emitted by a single squid fishing vessel, and may prove to be
a valuable tool in assessing and policing fisheries using satellite
remote sensing.
PY: Publication Year

Record 3 of 47

Age, growth and maturation of jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas
(Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) from the Gulf of California, Mexico

AU: Author
Markaida, U; Quinonez-Velazquez, C; Sosa-Nishizaki, O
SO: Source
Fisheries Research (Amsterdam) [Fish. Res.]. Vol. 66, no. 1, pp.
31-47. Jan 2004.

This study describes the age and growth of large specimens of the
jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas that supported the fishery in the Gulf of
California in 1995-1997. Statoliths of 299 females (10.8-87.5 cm
mantle length, ML) and 147 males (17-73.9 cm ML) were read. Assuming a
daily rhythm of statolith deposition the smallest female (10.8 cm ML)
was 84 days old and the largest (87.5 cm ML) 386 days old. The oldest
females were 14-15 months old. The smallest male (17 cm ML) was 135
days old and the oldest male (71.5 cm ML) was 372 days old. The
logistic model best described growth in jumbo squid. Growth curves
were similar to those reported from other studies on this species
using statolith reading. However, they suggest a faster growth than
that described by size frequency analysis. No differences in growth
were noted between seasons, except that females from Sta. Rosalia
weighed more than those caught off Guaymas at the same age. Females
grew faster than males, but both sexes grew more than 2 mm/day between
140th and 300th day of life: one of the highest absolute growth rates
recorded so far for squids. Large size females mature late, at an age
of 1 year and 73 cm ML and males matured at 10 months and 60 cm ML.
Females of the medium- sized maturing group mature at 7 months and 37
cm ML and males at 7 months and 34 cm. Thus, this latter group was
regarded as an early maturing group, living probably less than a year,
and the former as a late maturing group, living a year or slightly
more. Hatch dates were distributed throughout the whole year, without
reflecting any reproductive pattern. Large jumbo squid in the Gulf of
California comprised a population of multiple intra-annual cohorts
using alternate upwelling seasonal areas during their growth.
PY: Publication Year

Record 4 of 47

Identification and Characterization of the Off-Flavor in Mantle Muscle
of Jumbo Squid (Dosidicus gigas) from the Gulf of California

AU: Author
Sanchez-Brambila, GY; Alvarez-Manilla, G; Soto-Cordova, F; Lyons, BG;
Pacheco-Aguilar, R
SO: Source
Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology [J. Aquat. Food Prod.
Technol.]. Vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 55-67. 2004.

The identification of the off-flavor in Dosidicus gigas meat and the
partial characterization of the responsible compound(s) is reported.
Descriptive analysis of the squid flavor showed that sour and bitter
tastes describe the off-flavor. Water-soluble extracts from mantle
were fractionated by ultra filtration and separated by size exclusion
chromatography. Sensory analyses of chromatography peaks indicated
that fraction 2 was consistent in sourness and bitterness intensity.
Amino phase HPLC of fraction 2 resulted in the separation of six
peaks. Analysis showed that these peaks contain amino acids, thus
indicating that low molecular weight water-soluble peptide(s) are
involved in the off-flavor of jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas.
PY: Publication Year

Record 5 of 47

Food and feeding habits of jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (Cephalopoda:
Ommastrephidae) from the Gulf of California, Mexico

AU: Author
Markaida, U; Sosa-Nishizaki, O*
SO: Source
Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom [J.
Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K.]. Vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 507-522. 2003.

Stomach contents of 533 jumbo squid, Dosidicus gigas, ranging between
14.5 and 87.5 cm dorsal mantle length were collected on a monthly
basis in the central Gulf of California from November 1995 to April
1997. Fish prey were identified by sagittal otoliths, cephalopods by
beaks and crustaceans by exoskeletal features. The diet was dominated
by Benthosema panamense, an abundant near-shore nyctoepipelagic
myctophid that forms dense aggregations. Another myctophid,
Triphoturus mexicanus, several micronektonic squid, pelagic red crab
and small pelagic fish such as northern anchovy and Pacific sardine
played a secondary role. The largest differences in diet were due to
spatial and monthly changes, while differences regarding squid size or
sex were smaller. Prey size (averaging 5-7 cm) and prey number did not
vary with size of jumbo squid. Jumbo squid in the slopes of the
Guaymas basin feed on abundant schooling mesopelagic micronekton of
annual nature with a quick response to environmental changes, which
could partly explain the large annual fluctuations of this commercial
PY: Publication Year

Record 6 of 47

Biomass of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas in the EEZ of Nicaragua and
adjacent open waters

AU: Author
Nigmatullin, ChM; Froerman, YuM; Zheronkin, YuN
SO: Source
Bulletin of Marine Science [Bull. Mar. Sci.]. Vol. 71, no. 2, p. 1132.
Sep 2002.

There are no biomass estimations for Dosidicus gigas in the Central
East Pacific. The abundance of D. gigas was assessed at 221 light
night drifting stations during eight seasonal surveys in the
Nicaraguan EEZ in 1984-1986. Squid were distributed throughout the EEZ
to the west of the shelfbreak (32,500 km super(2)). Its size structure
and distribution varied during these surveys. The total biomass of D.
gigas fluctuated significantly: 107,000 mt (October 1984), 150,000
(November 1984), 190,000 (March 1985), 275,000 (August 1985), 100,000
(March 1986), 20,000 (June 1986) to 12,000 (May 1986) and 163,000 t
(June 1990). In the open waters outside the EEZ (8-13 degree N),
ecological investigations of D. gigas and the active Soviet pelagic
trawl fishery were carried out in 1989-1991. The total catch was 2447
t in 1989 and 9800 t in 1990. The biomass of D. gigas in a high
productive zone of the Costa Rica Dome (9 degree 20'-10 degree 12'N,
89 degree 20'-90 degree 46'W) was estimated by two methods in 1990.
The June trawl survey over an area of 36,442 km super(2) revealed a
biomass of 1,001,000 t. Most of these squids (675,000 t) occurred in
the dense aggregations in the Dome water mass throughout an area of
1518 km super(2). The second assessment based on the trawl fishery
data showed similar values: 1,114,000 t in June, and 825,000 t in July
throughout an area of 58900 km super(2), and 681,000 t in August (area
of 69,600 km super(2)). In the areas of fishery concentrations with
catches greater than 0.3 t h super(-1) the squid biomass was 975,000 t
(area of 35,600 km super(2)) in June, 648,000 t (29,500 km super(2))
in July, and 477,000 t (35,300 km super(2)) in August. Due to the
relatively stable CPUE, the habitual round-the-year biomass of D.
gigas in the Dome area may be assessed to be approximately 0.5-1.0
million t.
PY: Publication Year

Record 7 of 47

Stochastic estimation of the catchability and recruitment of the jumbo
squid Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835) from the Gulf of California,

AU: Author
Morales Bojorquez, E; Nevarez Martinez, MO
SO: Source
Ciencias Marinas [Cienc. Mar.]. Vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 193-204. 2002.

In this paper, a depletion model with two different approaches
(stochastic and deterministic) was analyzed, in order to compare the
observation error hypothesis in the CPUE data, and the process error
in the model, as well as its effect on the recruitment and
catchability estimates in the jumbo squid fishery from the Gulf of
California, Mexico. Results showed an underestimation of the
catchability when the deterministic approach was used.
PY: Publication Year

Record 8 of 47

Occurrence of jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas aggregations
associated with the countercurrent ridge off the Costa Rica Dome
during 1997 El Nino and 1999 La Nina

AU: Author
Ichii, T; Mahapatra, K; Watanabe, T; Yatsu, A; Inagake, D; Okada, Y
SO: Source
Marine ecology progress series [Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser.]. Vol. 231, pp.
151-166. 2002.

Factors responsible for aggregations of jumbo flying squid Dosidicus
gigas, an important component of the marine food web and target of
commercial fisheries off the Costa Rica Dome in the Eastern Tropical
Pacific Ocean (ETP), were examined during 2 years of different extreme
oceanographic conditions: fall 1997 El Nino and fall 1999 La Nina. A
high abundance of squid occurred in association with the
well-developed countercurrent ridge (upwelling) off the Costa Rica
Dome during fall 1997, but not during fall 1999, when the
countercurrent ridge was less developed. Two features of the
well-developed countercurrent ridge were considered important for the
occurrence of high jumbo flying squid concentrations. Firstly,
subsurface chlorophyll a (chl a) maxima were formed along the
countercurrent ridge, resulting in integrated chl a concentrations in
the upper 100 m being relatively high considering the generally low
productivity of the ETP during an EI Nino event. Secondly, a strong
salinity front formed along the North Equatorial Countercurrent, which
is possibly responsible for retention of jumbo flying squid in the
ridge. Large yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares, which mainly feed on
micronekton (small fishes, cephalopods and swimming crabs), as do
jumbo flying squid, were also more highly concentrated along the
countercurrent ridge during 1997 than during 1999. It was noted that
skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis and small yellowfin tuna, which
mainly feed on zooplankton, were associated with the equatorial ridge
in the ETP, indicating that prey faunal components may also play an
important part in the close association of jumbo flying squid with the
countercurrent ridge.
PY: Publication Year

Record 9 of 47

Conclusion and analysis on the experimental fishing of Dosidicus gigas
in the offlying sea of Peru and Costa Rica in 2001

AU: Author
Ye, Xuchang
SO: Source
Marine fisheries/Haiyang Yuye [Mar. Fish./Haiyang Yuye]. Vol. 24, no.
4, pp. 165-168. 2002.

Based on the analyses of the data on sea conditions, catches, fishing
grounds and biological charactersics of jumbo flying squid Dosidicus
gigas experimental fishing in the offlying sea of Peru and Costa Rica
in 2001, it shows that the sea surface temperature off Peru increases
gradually westwards as well as northwards. There exists
thermocline-layer between the sea surface and 100 depth. The dominant
mantle length of jumbo flying squid ranges from 24 to 48 cm. The
relationship between the mantle length and weight is Y = 6 x 10
super(-6)L super(3.2598) (R sub(2) = 0.9924). the main fishing ground
lies on 14~'00'S, 80~'00'W. It is concluded that fishing grounds off
Peru and Costa Rica waters in the east Pacific Ocean are more
profitable to be exploited, but the jigging techniology needs to be
further improved.
PY: Publication Year

Record 10 of 47

A review of the biology of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas
(Cephalopods: Ommastrephidae)

AU: Author
Nigmatullin, CM; Nesis, KN; Arkhipkin, AI
SO: Source
Fisheries Research (Amsterdam) [Fish. Res.]. Vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 9-19.
Dec 2001.

The taxonomy, functional morphology, evolutionary biology and ecology
of the jumbo squid, Dosidicus gigas, were reviewed using the data from
many Soviet/Russian expeditions and all available literature. D. gigas
is one of the largest and most abundant of the nektonic squid in the
epipelagic zone of the world Ocean. It occurs in the eastern Pacific
with its species range limited by the isoline of phosphate
concentration of 0.8 mg-at P-PO sub(4) super(3) super(-)/m super(2) in
the 0-100m layer. Three intraspecific groups of D. gigas may be
distinguished on the basis of the size of adult males and females:
small (mantle length (ML) of adult males 130-260mm, females
140-340mm), medium-sized (240-420 and 280-600mm, respectively) and
large (> 400-500mm and 550-650 to 1000mm and more, respectively).
Growth is rapid. The life span of all three groups is about 1 year,
with the biggest specimens of the large group probably living 2 years.
D. gigas are monocyclic with the highest potential female fecundity
among cephalopods; up to 32 million oocytes. Spawning takes place
throughout the year, with a distinct peak during spring and summer in
the southern hemisphere (October-January). D. gigas is an active
predator. The most common prey among fish species are epipelagic
lanternfish, and among squid species are ommastrephids, including D.
gigas. Throughout the whole life cycle the prey sizes constitute 5-15%
of the squid total length. Parasite fauna include 9-12 species of
nematode, cestode and trematode, and the ciliate Chromidina. The total
instantaneous stock of D. gigas within the limits of the species range
was estimated at around 7-10 million tonnes, including around 2-4
million tonnes in the open ocean beyond the exclusive economic zones.
PY: Publication Year

Record 11 of 47

Distribution and concentrations of jumbo flying squid (Dosidicus
gigas) off the Peruvian coast between 1991 and 1999

AU: Author
Taipe, A; Yamashiro, C; Mariategui, L; Rojas, P; Roque, C
SO: Source
Fisheries Research (Amsterdam) [Fish. Res.]. Vol. 54, no. 1, pp.
21-32. Dec 2001.

Seasonal changes in the distribution and concentration of jumbo flying
squid (Dosidicus gigas) off the Peruvian coast were assessed using
catch and effort data from the jigging vessels that worked within the
area between 1991 and 1999. The results showed a wide distribution of
D. gigas along the coast, the highest concentrations occurred along
the coast of northern Peru, from Puerto Pizarro (3 degree 24'S) to
Chimbote (9 degree S), with low to medium concentrations observed off
Pisco (13 degree 42'S) and Atico (16 degree 14'S). The highest catch
per unit effort (CPUE) values occurred during autumn, winter and
spring with the squid tending to disperse in summer. There is some
evidence of interannual differences associated with changes in sea
surface temperature. Catches, fishing effort and CPUE were the highest
between 1991 and 1995 and lowest in 1996.
PY: Publication Year

Record 12 of 47

Age, growth and population structure of the jumbo flying squid
Dosidicus gigas in Peruvian waters

AU: Author
Arguelles, J; Rodhouse, PG; Villegas, P; Castillo, G
SO: Source
Fisheries Research (Amsterdam) [Fish. Res.]. Vol. 54, no. 1, pp.
51-61. Dec 2001.

Age, growth and population structure of the jumbo flying squid,
Dosidicus gigas, from the jig fishery in Peruvian waters in 1992 were
determined by reading daily increments in ground and polished sections
of statoliths. The squid ranged in size from 192 to 965mm dorsal
mantle length (ML) and no squid were older than 1 year. Two size
groups were present in the exploited population; one group of small
individuals < 490mm ML and another group of larger individuals > 520mm
ML, with maximum ages of 220 and 354 days, respectively. The date of
hatching estimated by back-calculation, revealed the presence of two
cohorts of small squid; one hatched in autumn/winter and recruited to
the fishery in spring/summer and the other hatched in spring/summer
and recruited to the fishery in autumn/winter.
PY: Publication Year

Record 13 of 47

Dynamics of maturation, seasonality of reproduction and spawning
grounds of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (Cephalopoda:
Ommastrephidae) in Peruvian waters

AU: Author
Tafur, R; Villegas, P; Rabi, M; Yamashiro, C
SO: Source
Fisheries Research (Amsterdam) [Fish. Res.]. Vol. 54, no. 1, pp.
33-50. Dec 2001.

In Peru, the giant squid Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835) is the most
important cephalopod resource. The objective of the present paper is
to analyze the reproductive cycle, and to determine the locations and
potential of the spawning of D. gigas off the Peruvian coast between
1991 and 1995. The size of the first stage of maturity was estimated
at 240-320mm for females. Mature individuals were observed throughout
the entire study period, although the main peak in spawning occurred
between October and January with a secondary peak between July and
August. An analysis of the seasonal cycle in spawning using maturity
indices gave similar results and indicated the presence of two size
groups with different maturity stages. Females were always more
numerous than males during the study period and showed the highest
incidence of mating in spring (September-November). Spawning took
place along the entire coast of Peru with the greatest numbers
spawning in the northern zone between 3 degree S and 8 degree S and
the central zone between 12 degree S and 17 degree S. During 1993,
there was an exceptional spawning ground in the southern zone during
January and March.
PY: Publication Year

Record 14 of 47

Reproductive biology of jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas in the Gulf of
California, 1995-1997

AU: Author
Markaida, U; Sosa-Nishizaki, O*
SO: Source
Fisheries Research (Amsterdam) [Fish. Res.]. Vol. 54, no. 1, pp.
63-82. Dec 2001.

A large-scale, artisanal fishery for jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas)
occurred in the central Gulf of California between 1995 and 1997,
mainly off Santa Rosalia and Guaymas, two areas of alternate seasonal
upwelling. The fishery was supported mainly by large individuals:
females maturing at 750mm ML and males maturing at two sizes, 530 and
670mm ML, respectively. A medium-sized maturing group was also
detected; 400mm ML for females and 330mm ML for males. The 77% of
females (909 in total) were immature or maturing animals, while 77% of
males (392 in total) were mature. The predominance of mature males
relative to mature females suggests that the central Gulf of
California is a feeding ground, although size selection by jig is
difficult to assess. The alternate upwelling system could provide a
food supply for the maturation of squid all year round. The
reproductive season appears to spread throughout the year, with a
small proportion of mature females and most of the males mature in
most months. No spawning peaks could be detected, indicating that
reproduction probably takes place outside the areas studied. The
population size structure was similar for the three fishing seasons
considered, indicating a similar use of the upwelling areas for
PY: Publication Year

Record 15 of 47

Review of stock assessment and fishery biology of Dosidicus gigas in
the Gulf of California, Mexico

AU: Author
Morales-Bojorquez, E; Cisneros-Mata, MA; Nevarez-Martinez, MO;
Hernandez-Herrera, A
SO: Source
Fisheries Research (Amsterdam) [Fish. Res.]. Vol. 54, no. 1, pp.
83-94. Dec 2001.

Two periods in the Dosidicus gigas fishery in the Gulf of California,
Mexico, have been examined. The first was in the early 1980s, when
there was a single stock with multiple cohorts and recruitment to the
principal fishing grounds was in May. Management schemes were
difficult to establish because of the variation in the annual
abundance of the cohorts. During 1983, the fishery collapsed; an
effect of El Nino was an acceptable hypothesis. The second period
began in 1994. Landings increased from 1994 to 1996. During this time
there was only one annual cohort in the fishery with recruitment in
May. A management strategy was proposed adopting the stock assessment
used for Illex argentinus in the Falkland Islands; assuming an annual
recruitment, an estimate of the proportional escapement and modelling
the catch-per-unit-effort data of the three commercial fleets. Using
this approach, the landings in 1997 were 120,000t. However, in 1998 a
decrease in landings occurred, a possible cause could have been the
1998 El Nino. Some aspects of these two periods are discussed,
principally showing the differences in the management approach.
PY: Publication Year

Record 16 of 47

Parasitic helminths of jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (Cephalopoda:
Ommastrephidae) in open waters of the central east Pacific

AU: Author
Shukhgalter, OA; Nigmatullin, CM*
SO: Source
Fisheries Research (Amsterdam) [Fish. Res.]. Vol. 54, no. 1, pp.
95-110. Dec 2001.

During 1981-1989, 849 jumbo squid, Dosidicus gigas, from four open
ocean regions of the east Pacific (from 11 degree N to 22 degree S)
were examined for parasitic helminths. The samples were collected from
the Peruvian (9-21 degree S and 82-87 degree W), east equatorial (2
degree N-6 degree S and 84-87 degree W), west equatorial (1 degree N-3
degree S and 96-100 degree W) and Nicaraguan (9-11 degree N and 88-91
degree W) regions. Nine species of parasitic helminths were found,
with a total prevalence of infection of 75.5%. Trematoda: metacercaria
of Didymozoidae indet (prevalence: 13%, intensity: 1-35, abundance:
0.51); Cestoda: Pelichnibothrium speciosum (75.2%, 1-63,000, 664.5);
Phyllobothrium sp. (1.2%, 1-2, 0.02); Tentacularia coryphaenae (6.6%,
1-5, 0.16); Nematoda: Anisakis simplex (9.2%, 1-16, 0.23); Anisakis
physeteris (24.2%, 1-26, 1.22); Porrocaecum sp. (29.4%, 1-17, 0.30);
Contracaecum sp. (0.5%, 1-41, 0.22); Spinitectus sp. (0.4%, 1-3,
0.01). All these parasites occurred in the larval stage. The
composition of helminths and quantitative infection indexes were
similar for males and females of similar mantle length (ML). Four size
groups of Dosidicus were recognized. The helminths of the first size
group, 30-89 mm ML comprised metacercaria of Didymozoidae and larvae
of Porrocaecum sp. In the second size group, 90-139 mm ML, the
prevalence of didymozoids increased to 47.5% and the majority of the
parasite fauna (four species) occurred at this stage. All nine species
were present in the third size group, 140-359 mm ML, but with a sharp
decrease in the prevalence of didymozoids (5.8%). In the fourth size
group, 360-431 mm ML, didymozoids were absent while the prevalence and
intensity values for the other helminth species were maximal. The
helminth fauna of similar sized squid (190-300 mm ML) from different
regions was similar and the levels of infection corresponded closely.
However, a comparison of ontogenetic infection dynamics between the
Peruvian and east equatorial waters showed that the prevalence and
intensity data for the main and secondary helminth species differed.
This may support the hypothesis of isolated populations in these two
regions. D. gigas is a paratenic (transport) host for the helminth
species studied, with scombroid and xiphoid fishes, sharks and marine
mammals as the definitive hosts.
PY: Publication Year

Record 17 of 47

Estimations of catchability-at-length for the jumbo squid (Dosidicus
gigas) fishery in the gulf of California, Mexico

AU: Author
Morales-Bojorquez, E; Martinez-Aguilar, S; Arreguin-Sanchez, F;
Nevarez-Martinez, MO
SO: Source
Reports of California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations
[CalCOFI Rep.]. Vol. 42, pp. 167-171. Oct 2001.

In this paper, we used the deterministic model of catchability (DMC)
for the jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) fishery. The DMC assumes that
catchability depends on length as well as on squid behavior. We
analyzed the variation in the catchability coefficient (q) of D. gigas
from the Gulf of California, Mexico, based on population
length-structured data (mantle length = ML) expressed as CPUE from 5
November 1995 to 16 November 1996. The results showed two patterns:
(1) low catchability for 19-27 cm, 43-49 cm, and 57-63 cm of ML; and
(2) high catchability for 29-33 cm, 53-57 cm, and 65-71 cm of ML. This
variation in catchability-at-length was explained by an overlap of two
cohorts dominant in a recruitment period in May 1996. The catchability
coefficient showed an overlap of cohorts. We found three peaks of
catchability with approximately the same value (q approximately 0.7 x
10 super(-3)). These high value of catchability for 29-33 cm, 53-57
cm, and 65-71 cm of ML showed that these intervals have the same
vulnerability. Although we recognize a dominant cohort in the fishery,
the catchability estimates suggest the presence of three cohorts,
since catchability is similar among intervals.
PY: Publication Year

Record 18 of 47

Population size and exploitation of giant squid (Dosidicus gigas
D'Orbigny, 1835) in the Gulf of California, Mexico

AU: Author
Morales-Bojorquez, E; Hernandez-Herrera, A; Nevarez-Martinez, MO;
Cisneros-Mata, MA; Guerrero-Escobedo, FJ
SO: Source
Scientia Marina (Barcelona) [Sci. Mar. (Barc.)]. Vol. 65, no. 1, pp.
75-80. 2001.

The most important landing sites of the giant squid (Dosidicus gigas
D'Orbigny, 1835) fishery in the Gulf of California, Mexico are
Guaymas, in Sonora and Santa Rosalia, in Baja California Sur. An
increase in the species biomass resulted in increased landings,
ranging from 6,200 tons in 1994 to 140,000 tons in 1996. The
development of a management strategy for this fishery based on the
proportional escapement has been suggested. This necessitates the
estimation of the population size when the fishing season begins in
order to determine the amount of fishing effort. Weekly catch and
effort data were reported from October 1995 to March 1996 for three
fleets operating in the Gulf of California. The population size
estimated using a maximum likelihood model was 82,000 tons with a
proportional escapement of 66%.
PY: Publication Year

Record 19 of 47

The Effect on Growth and Protein Digestibility of Shrimp Penaeus
stylirrostris Fed with Feeds Supplemented with Squid (Dosidicus gigas)
Meal Dried by Two Different Processes

AU: Author
Murueta, JHC; Carreno, FLG*
SO: Source
Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology [J. Aquat. Food Prod.
Technol.]. Vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 35-47. 2001.

Giant squid meal from two drying processes: high-heat (from commercial
flame-dried) (HHSM) and low-heat (laboratory made) (LHSM), were
evaluated as protein source for shrimp Penaeus stylirrostris in two
feeding experiments. Trial I consisted of wild shrimp fed HHSM at
different rates. Shrimp survival was negatively affected by commercial
squid meal and no difference was found in growth performance. Trial II
consisted of laboratory-reared shrimps from single brood stock fed
supplemented feeds with HHSM and LHSM at different rates. Shrimps fed
LHSM performed better than the groups fed HHSM. The drying process and
the supplementation rates affected growth, digestibility and survival
of shrimp.
PY: Publication Year

Record 20 of 47

Biomass and distribution of the jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas;
d'Orbigny, 1835) in the Gulf of California, Mexico

AU: Author
Nevarez-Martinez, MO; Hernandez-Herrera, A; Morales-Bojorquez, E;
Balmori-Ramirez, A; Cisneros-Mata, MA; Morales-Azpeitia, R
SO: Source
Fisheries Research (Amsterdam) [Fish. Res.]. Vol. 49, no. 2, pp.
129-140. Dec 2000.

The objective of this study was to estimate the total biomass and
distribution of the population of jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas in the
Gulf of California and its relation to sea temperature. Data were
collected on the R/V BIP XI during a 20-day cruise (16 May to 3 June
1996). The cruise covered a grid of 59 stations within 25 degree
10'-28 degree 50'N and 109 degree 30'-112 degree 45'W. At each
station, fishing was done by using attraction of light and jigs with
six rings of barbless hooks. Biomass was estimated by stratified
random sampling, and swept area by strata. The first method yielded an
estimate of 85 513 metric tons (t), 95% interval of 79 613-93 413 t,
and the second method 118 170 t (95% interval of 113 243-123 097 t).
Squid were found in almost all the area covered by the cruise. There
was a north to south gradient in catch, with the highest catch between
28 degree and 28 degree 30'N and lower catch along the coast of
Sonora, south of 27 degree N. There was no relationship between
biomass, distribution, and water temperature from surface to 70 m
PY: Publication Year

Record 21 of 47

Water temperatures in the Gulf of California in May and June 1996 and
their relation to the capture of giant squid (Dosidicus gigas)

D'Orbigny, 1835.
AU: Author
Brito Castillo, L; Alcantara Razo, E; Morales Azpeitia, R; Salinas
Zavala, CA
SO: Source
Ciencias Marinas [Cienc. Mar.]. Vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 413-440. 2000.

The relation between water temperature and the giant squid catch in
the California Gulf was analyzed. Data were collected in May and June
1996 at 60 stations. Each fishing session lasted 30 minutes, and an
average of 100 organisms per 0.5 degree x 0.5 degree square were
caught. The hypothesis was that if water temperature is a factor
affecting squid movement, The squid catch was successful in an optimum
temperature range. With both exploratory and correlation analyses, the
conclusion was that the hypothesis was true.
PY: Publication Year

Record 22 of 47

Evaluation of different body parts of the giant squid (Dosidicus
gigas) powdered as meal in balanced diets for shrimp (Litopenaeus
vannamei) feeding

AU: Author
Martinez Vega, JA; Cruz Suarez, LE; Ricque Marie, D
SO: Source
Ciencia y mar. Vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 11-18. 2000.

The meal of different squid body parts were evaluated as shrimp food
in two different bioassays, seven diets were formulated for each
bioassay. Each diet was evaluated in quadruplicate with 15 shrimps per
aquarium. After 28 days the better results were those obtained with
squid tentacles meal with a significant growth rate of 34.9% respect
the control test.
PY: Publication Year

Record 23 of 47

Body composition and drying process of the giant squid Dosidicus

AU: Author
Martinez Vega, JA; Cruz Suarez, LE; Ricque Marie, D
SO: Source
Ciencia y mar. Vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 35-38. 2000.

A drying room of 1 ton capacity was built for drying fresh minced
giant squid and the yield after drying, considering the different
squid parts was assessed. Yield was 17.89% for the head, 16.13% for
tentacles, 14.5% for mantle and 14.5% for fins. Residual humidity was
3% in all the squid parts. The chemical composition of all the parts
was determined. Protein values ranged from 71.86% to 86.55% being the
richest part the fins.
PY: Publication Year

Record 24 of 47

Tracking experiments of the jumbo flying squid, Dosidicus gigas, with
an ultrasonic telemetry system in the eastern Pacific Ocean

AU: Author
Yatsu, Akihiko; Yamanaka, Kan-ichi; Yamashiro, C
SO: Source
Bulletin of the National Research Institute of Far Seas Fisheries.
Shimizu [Bull. Natl. Res. Inst. Far Seas Fish.]. no. 36, pp. 55-60.

Vertical and horizontal movements of three individuals of Dosidicus
gigas (35-43 cm in mantle length) were observed with an ultrasonic
telemetry system in the area of the Costa Rica Dome and in Peruvian
waters in October-November, 1997. Squid were tagged and released
several hours after sunset and tracked for 8-14 hours. Swimming
activity was usually above 200 m depth during night and they dived to
bathypelagic (>1000 m) layer either at the time of twilight (two
experiments) or at O:55 in local time, five hours before the sunrise
(one experiment). The diving speed varied between 2 and 28 m/minute.
In every experiment, squid was lost since they probably dived beyond
the limit of the transmitters used (1,020 m).
PY: Publication Year

Record 25 of 47

Embryos and rhynchoteuthion paralarvae of the jumbo flying squid
Dosidicus gigas (Cephlopoda) obtained through artificial fertilization
from Peruvian waters

AU: Author
Yatsu, Akihiko; Tafur, R; Maravi, C
SO: Source
Fisheries science. Tokyo [Fish. Sci.]. Vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 904-908.

Shipboard artificial fertilization experiments were carried out during
November 1997 using four mature and mated females of Dosidicus gigas
(320-407 mm in mantle length) from Peruvian waters. A total of 167
hatchlings were obtained from about 3600 eggs which were kept at 18
degree C. Oviducal gland powder from the closely related species,
Ommastrephes bartramii, was effective in expansion of chorion, which
is essential for normal embryonic development. Hatching occurred 6-9
days after fertilization. Paralarvae survived up to 10 days after
hatching without feeding. Mantle length was 0.9-1.3 mm (mean 1.1 mm)
at hatching and increased to 1.1-1.5 mm (mean 1.4 mm) on the 7th day
after hatching. Proboscis suckers were equal in size. Length of long
axis of the statolith increased from ca.40 mu m at hatching to ca.60
mu m on the 4th day after hatching and remained around 63-67 mu m
until the 10th day. Daily increments were indistinct in the
PY: Publication Year

Record 26 of 47

Management strategy for the giant squid (Dosidicus gigas) fishery in
the Gulf of California, Mexico

AU: Author
Hernandez-Herrera, A; Morales-Bojorquez, E; Cisneros-Mata, MA;
Nevarez-Martinez, MO; Rivera-Parra, GI
SO: Source
Reports of California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations
[CalCOFI Rep.]. Vol. 39, pp. 212-218. Oct 1998.

A single-cohort biomass model was developed for a management strategy
using proportional escapement as a reference to control fishing effort
for the giant squid (Dosidicus gigas) in the Gulf of California.
Biological information (length and weight frequencies) and fishery
statistics (catch and effort) from November 1995 to November 1996 for
the commercial fleet were analyzed. The data showed the presence of
one cohort of D. gigas, which recruited in May. This cohort supported
the fishery throughout the year. Using a biomass estimate from a
research cruise in the central area of the Gulf of California in
October 1996, the model predicted the highest levels of abundance from
October 1996 to January 1997. We suggest a proportional escapement,
estimated from the point of maximum biomass, between 27% and 40%, with
a remaining biomass of between 65,560 and 34,890 metric tons in May, a
month in which a new recruitment can be expected in the fishery.
PY: Publication Year

Record 27 of 47

Reproduction of the jumbo flying squid, Dosidicus gigas (Orbigny,
1835) (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) off Peruvian coasts

AU: Author
Tafur, R; Rabi, M
SO: Source
ECOLOGY OF MARINE MOLLUSCS. pp. 33-37. Scientia Marina (Barcelona)
[SCI. MAR. (BARC.)]. Vol. 61, no. suppl. 2, Jul 1997.

A sample of 17,683 individuals of Dosidicus gigas was collected
between 1991 and 1994 from Japanese and Korean fishery boats by
on-board Peruvian observers. On the basis of a modification of the
Nesis (1970) macroscopic scale, four stages of maturity for females
and males were assessed. The mean mantle length at first maturity was
32 cm for females and 28 cm for males. For the period 1991 to 1994,
the spawning peaks were identified using three different methods; the
spawning progression (variation of the III stage over time). variation
of the nidamental gland index ((LNG/ML)x100) and the gonadosomatic
index (Gonad weight x 10 super(8)/ML super(3)). Spawning extends
throughout the year, but the most important spawning peak occurs
during October to January, without variation between the years of
study. Secondary peaks were identified during July and August. The
variation in nidamental gland length in relation to mantle length
provides an acceptable index to indicate when spawning occurs.
PY: Publication Year

Record 28 of 47

Improvement of giant squid (Dosidicus gigas) muscle gelation by using
gelling ingredients

AU: Author
Gomez-Guillen, M; Montero, P*
SO: Source
Z. Lebensm.-Unters.-Forsch. (A Food Res. Technol.). Vol. 204, no. 5,
pp. 379-384. 1997.

Muscle of the giant squid (Dosidicus gigas) has a very poor
gel-forming capacity and, therefore, gelation-enhancing ingredients
are essential for the production of a gel of acceptable quality. Some
synergy between such ingredients was found, mainly when one or two
hydrocolloids (i-carrageenan or i-carrageenan and starch) were added
along with a non-muscle protein (egg-white, soy protein, casein or
gluten). The strongest gels were found to be those made with 1.5 %
NaCl and 76 % moisture containing i-carrageenan, starch and non-muscle
PY: Publication Year

Record 29 of 47

The proportional escapement and the use of the biological reference
point F sub(%BR), for the exploitation of the giant squid, Dosidicus
gigas, from Gulf of California, Mexico

AU: Author
Nevarez Martinez, MO; Morales Bojorquez, E
SO: Source
Oceanides. Vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 97-105. 1997.

Information on catch (tons) and effort (fishing nights) was analyzed
weekly from November 5-11, 1995 to 25 February-2 March 1996. The
proportional escapement of spawning adults as a biological reference
point (F sub(%BR)), as an useful tool for the management of the
fishery was estimated. Results showed variation in the potential
effort within an interval of 4,900-6,000 fishing night, which could
permit exploitation during the next five to eight weeks. Proportional
escapement was higher than 50%. Exploitation of more cohorts need
estimation of their respective proportional escapement.
PY: Publication Year

Record 30 of 47

Population abundance of the giant squid (Dosidicus gigas) from the
coast of Sonora, Mexico

AU: Author
Morales Bojorquez, E; Hernandez Herrera, A; Nevarez Martinez, MO; Diaz
De Leon Corral, AJ; Rivera Parra, GI; Ramos Montiel, A
SO: Source
Oceanides. Vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 89-95. 1997.

Population abundance of Dosidicus gigas was determined in Sonora,
Mexico. The catch/unit effort (CPUE) was analyzed from Oct 1995 to Mar
1996. Estimates were obtained by: a non linear method and a maximum
likelihood method with interaction between different fleets. The
results showed an effort increment and a change in the catch
(100t-600t/week), the CPUE decreased (15t-1.5t/fishing night). The
initial biomass with the non linear method was 146,352t and with the
maximum likelihood method was 80,800t. The catchability was 4.29x10
super(-4), and 1.49x10 super(-5)/vessels and artisanal fleet
PY: Publication Year

Record 31 of 47

Ultrastuctural and rheological changes during the gelation of giant
squid (Dosidicus gigas) muscle

AU: Author
Gomez-Guillen, C; Solas, T; Borderias, J; Montero, P
SO: Source
Zeitschrift fur Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und -Forschung. Berlin,
Heidelberg [Z. LEBENSM.-UNTERS.-FORSCH.]. Vol. 202, no. 3, pp.
215-220. 1996.

The giant squid or dosidicus (Dosidicus gigas) is normally shipped
frozen from the coasts of America. During the period prior to
freezing-when conditions are not always optimum - and during frozen
storage, the functional capacity of the muscle proteins declines,
rendering the material useless for certain processes such as
conversion to gel. This paper examines the reasons for the lack of a
good gel-forming capacity as measured both rheologically (breaking
force, breaking deformation and gel strength) and in terms of
ultrastructure (scanning microscopy). The study was carried out at
four different temperatures known to be critical for fish muscle
protein gel formation, and at two salt concentrations. At 35 degree C
the structure was spongier in gels made with 1.5% NaCl, although a
true gel was still not formed, as shown by rheological measurements.
Above 30 degree C, the ultrastructure became more cellular,
particularly in samples made with 2.5% NaCl, at which concentration
gel strength values were higher. However, at neither salt
concentration nor at any of the experimental temperatures was the mesh
as spongy as in other fish gels reported in the literature. The values
of rheological analysis and folding test were correspondingly low.
PY: Publication Year

Record 32 of 47

Effect of heating temperature and sodium chloride concentration on
ultrastructure and texture of gels made from giant squid (Dosidicus
gigas) with addition of starch, iota -carrageenan and egg white

AU: Author
Gomez-Guillen, C; Solas, T; Borderias, J; Montero, P
SO: Source
Zeitschrift fur Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und -Forschung. Berlin,
Heidelberg [Z. LEBENSM.-UNTERS.-FORSCH.]. Vol. 202, no. 3, pp.
221-227. 1996.

This paper seeks to compare the ultrastructure of gels made from
frozen muscle of giant squid (Dosidicus gigas) at various temperatures
with a number of different rheological parameters, with reference to a
variety of added ingredients (non-muscle proteins and hydrocolloids)
and to NaCl concentration. Interesting data on gel rheological
properties were found where formulae contained iota -carrageenan,
starch and egg white, with a low salt concentration (1.5%). This seems
to be because carrageenan forms an independent network which supports
the principal structure formed by the fish protein; starch is
incorporated into the network and retains water; and egg white forms a
supplementary network which helps to improve rheological properties.
PY: Publication Year

Record 33 of 47

The jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas (Orbigny, 1835) in Chile:
Analysis of an ephemeral fishery

AU: Author
Fernandez, F; Vazquez, JA
SO: Source
Estud. Oceanol. Fac. Recurs. Mar Univ. Antofagasta. Vol. 14, pp.
17-21. 1995.

The Jumbo Flying Squid fishery (Dosidicus gigas), was renewed during
1991 after 20 years, without commercial landing registers. The
commercial captures were concentrated between 29 and 34 degree S, with
sizes that varied between 77 and 103 cm of mantle length. The squid
market: Japan and Spain generated up to US$ 18 millions income between
1991 and June 1993.
PY: Publication Year

Record 34 of 47

Chemical composition of giant squid, Dosidicus gigas, caught from

AU: Author
Peng, Chun-Yang; Su, Suh-Yueh
SO: Source
Journal of Taiwan fisheries research. Keelung [J. TAIWAN FISH. RES.].
Vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 67-71. 1993.

The chemical composition of head-arm, mantle and fin of giant squid,
Dosidicus gigas, was analyzed. There were no distinct differences
among samples in the proximate composition, composition profiles of
amino acid and fatty acid and cholesterol content. The moisture, crude
protein, crude fat, ash and calorie content were 85.0 similar to
86.9%, 12.8 similar to 13.4%, 0.3%, 0.8 similar to 1.0% and 54 similar
to 56 Kcal/100 g, respectively. According to the amino acid analysis,
the protein of these samples was rich in essential amino acids. The
percentage ratios of saturated, monooic and polyoic acids in total
fatty acids were 73.2 similar to 75.7%, 9.7 similar to 11.0% and 13.9
similar to 15.8%, respectively. Cholesterol was 13.9 similar to 16.1
g/100 g of crude fat or 44.6 similar to 60.6 mg/100 g of meat.
PY: Publication Year

Record 35 of 47

Exploratory fishing for the giant squid (Dosidicus gigas) on board
the Japanese vessel Shinko Maru No.2 (4 November - 17 December

AU: Author
Rubio R, J; Salazar C, C
SO: Source
Informe. Instituto del Mar del Peru. 1992.

The results are presented of investigations conducted on board the
Japanese vessel Shinko Maru 2 in order to evaluate the possibility of
the commercial exploitation of the giant squid (Dosidicus gigas) in
the Peruvian Sea. Two catching systems were used - jigging and drift
nets. The distribution of the giant squid was traced, observing the
best concentrations between Paita and Cabo Blanco in front of Punta
Sal and Zorritos. Length structure, biometrical relationships, CPUE,
maturity and sexual proportion were analyzed and discussed in relation
to the results of other authors.
PY: Publication Year

Record 36 of 47

Potential impact of a seasonal migratory jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas)
stock on a Gulf of California sardine (Sardinops sagax caerulea )

AU: Author
Ehrhardt, NM
SO: Source
Bulletin of Marine Science. Vol. 49, no. 1-2, pp. 325-332. 1991.

The jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas ) inhabits the central eastern
Pacific. Annually, the species migrates with different intensities in
and out of the Gulf of California. In 1980 an unusually large squid
stock was observed in the Gulf. Extensive research on that migratory
stock resulted in new insights about the biology and population
dynamics of the jumbo squid. Further analyses are presented in this
paper which indicate that sardines were a significant component in the
jumbo squid diet. A quantitative assessment of the potential sardine
biomass consumption by jumbo squid was carried out by integrating
biological components. The results indicate that up to 60,000 metric
tons (mt) of sardines may have been consumed by jumbo squids during
their 9-month residence in the Gulf of California. Drop in total
sardine landings during the 1981 fishing season may be attributed at
least in part to an unusually high sardine mortality which may have
been induced by squid predation.
PY: Publication Year

Record 37 of 47

Fishery prospection of the giant squid (Dosidicus gigas) aboard the
Japanese vessel Shinko Maru 2

AU: Author
Rubio, RJ; Salazar, CC
SO: Source
Informe. Instituto del Mar del Peru. Callao. no. 103, pp. 3-32. 1991.

An evaluation on the commercial exploitation of the giant squid
(Dosidicus gigas) in the Peruvian Sea was realized. Two catching
systems were used, namely, jigging and drift net. A 200 KH echosounder
was used to detect the squid schools. Higher concentrations were found
between Paita and Cabo Blanco, off Punta Sal and Zorritos. Vertically,
the giant squid occurs between 3-270 m. Length structure, biometrics,
CPUE, maturity and sex ratio were analyzed and discussed.
PY: Publication Year

Record 38 of 47

Notes on young squids dip-netted and incidentally jigged during the
exploratory fishing on Dosidicus gigas in the eastern Pacific,
December 1987 - March 1988.

AU: Author
Yamaguchi, H; Okutani, T
SO: Source
Journal of the Tokyo University of Fisheries [J. TOKYO UNIV.
FISH./TOKYO SUISANDAI KEMPO.]. Vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 1-8. 1990.

One hundred and nine specimens of young squids were identified. They
were caught from off Peru in the period from December 1987 to March
1988 during exploratory fishing of the jumbo squid, Dosidicus gigas .
Six species were identified, the majority of them (97 out of 109) were
Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis . Six juvenile specimens (15.5-18.8 mm ML)
seemed to be D. gigas . Such a poverty of juvenile of D. gigas
suggests that the fishing ground does not coincide with the dispersal
area of juveniles. In contrast to this, the present finding shows an
extensive dispersion of juveniles of S. oualaniensis in the surveyed
PY: Publication Year

Record 39 of 47

Food spectrum of squid Dosidicus gigas (Oegopsida) and its variations
in ontogenesis.

AU: Author
Shchetinnikov, AS
SO: Source
Zoologicheskij zhurnal. Moscow. Vol. 68, no. 7, pp. 28-39. 1989.

A study was made of stomach content of 280 specimens of Dosidicus
gigas with mantle length of 2-42 cm caught in the Southeast Pacific.
The analysis of food composition, size and number of prey with the
account of literature data on morphology, growth, behaviour and
ecology in ontogenesis allowed for distinguishing 4 stages: 1) larval
stage (mantle length of up to 1 cm), 2) fry and juvenile stage
(macronecton epipelagic plankton-eaters 2-10 cm long), 3)
moderate-size nictoepipelagic predators (15-33 cm), and 4) large
nictoepipelagic predators (over 40-42 cm). Ontogenetic stages
alternate with transitional (critical) periods during which squids
change their mode of life and pass over to the higher trophic level.
PY: Publication Year

Record 40 of 47

Biological characteristics of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) caught in
open waters of the eastern Central Pacific from October to December

AU: Author
Koronkiewicz, A
SO: Source

On the basis of jigger catches in open waters of the Eastern Central
Pacific (from Costa Rica to Mexico), it was found that the abundance
of jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas was connected with the range of
divergence zones - there were more squids in the areas of influence of
upwelling. For this reason, squids migrated periodically from
north-west to south-east and back, depending in changes in the range
of divergence zone. Squids caught belong to several sub-populations;
modal mantle lengths (DML) were 26, 40, and 67 cm for females and 24,
48, and 77 cm for males. The squids were growing and developing.
Mature specimens predominated among males and immature among females.
Feeding activity of squids increased with the passage of night time.
Their stomachs were most filled with fresh food at dawn (at a time of
better feeding conditions) or in the second half of the night (at a
time of worse feeding conditions).
PY: Publication Year

Record 41 of 47

Biological analysis and stock assessment of the giant squid Dosidicus
gigas in the Gulf of California, Mexico during 1980.

AU: Author
Ehrhardt, NM; Solis, A; Pierre, J; Ortiz, J; Ulloa, P; Gonzalez, G;
Garcia, F
SO: Source
Ciencia pesquera. Mexico City. no. 5, pp. 63-76. 1986.

The taxonomy of Dosidicus gigas , as well as its identification key,
are presented. Also, an analysis of its world distribution and a
diagram of its migration along the California Gulf during 1980,
including feeding, maturity and possible breeding periods are showed.
Natural mortality, CPUE, and exploitation rate were analyzed. The
population is composed by several subpopulations, which coincide in
their recruitment season. Optimal conditions for fishery activities
occur from May to September.
PY: Publication Year
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Posted 27 February 2006 - 06:23 PM

Record 42 of 47

Preliminary study for determination of the giant squid Dosidicus
gigas gonadic maturity.

AU: Author
Michel, E; Klett, A; Ochoa, RI
SO: Source
Ciencia pesquera. Mexico City. no. 5, pp. 77-89. 1986.

With the aim of simplifying the identification of gonadic maturity
stages and also defining the preliminary basis for a detailed study of
the reproductive cycle of the giant squid, Dosidicus gigas , the
different stages of sexual maturity in males and females, at macro and
microscopic levels are described. Four stages are defined for females
and three for males that may be associated with the distinctive
characteristics of the reproductive apparatus. All these may be
applied to realize an empirical scale of maturity, by means of direct
observations of the gonads external morphology.
PY: Publication Year

Record 43 of 47

Management and exploitation of the giant squid (Dosidicus gigas )
AU: Author
Vazquez Novoa, MCH

An evaluation was made of capture techniques and fish
handling/processing methods used onboard, regarding the Dosidicus
gigas fishery. An examination was also made of three squid products,
determining their consumer acceptability.
PY: Publication Year

Record 44 of 47

On the fishery and biology of the giant squid Dosidicus gigas in the
Gulf of California, Mexico.

AU: Author
Ehrhardt, NM; Jacquemin, PS; Gracia B., F; Gonzales D., G; Lopez B.,
JM; Ortiz C., J; Solis N., A

The population of giant squid (D. gigas ) in the Gulf of California is
clearly a single stock with multiple cohorts. These migrate separately
on occasions but are contemporaneous: their recruitment to the major
fishing grounds occurs around May each year. From May to September the
stock presents the highest densities and thus an optimum situation for
the fishery. The cohorts grow at different rates depending on their
birth date, and probably their natural mortality rates are equally
different even though it has been impossible to measure this parameter
separately for each cohort as yet. Stock assessment analyses indicate
that after explosive fishery development, the stock is approaching the
Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY). Management schemes are difficult to
define unless the fishery is regulated in terms of the less productive
PY: Publication Year

Record 45 of 47

Dosidicus gigas
AU: Author
Nesis, KN

The author provides a description of the life cycle of Dosidicus gigas.
After a brief introduction and using references to the literature,
he describes: 1) egg stage; 2) juvenile stage; 3) growth; 4)
maturation; 5) reproduction; 6) mortality; 7) ecology. A map showing
the geographical distribution of the species is included.
PY: Publication Year

Record 46 of 47

Preliminary study on the reproductive system of the giant squid
Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny 1835) Mollusca: Cephalopoda in the Gulf of

AU: Author
Ochoa Baez, RI
SO: Source
TRANS. CIBCASIO. Vol. 6, pp. 187-203. 1982.

The giant squid Dosidicus gigas of the Gulf of California is an
important food resource in Mexico. The reproductive system of these
animals, collected during all of 1980, is described. In the females,
an ovary, a set of nidamental glands, and a set of accessory
nidamental glands, were found. Histological studies revealed the
presence of eggs in different stages of development together with
follicular cells. The advanced mature stage coincided with the
presence of vitelline platelets. In the males the testes, the efferent
duct, a spermatophoric sack and organ and a penis were found. The
histological studies showed different stages of the spermatogenesis
and nutritional cells.
PY: Publication Year

Record 47 of 47

Abundance explosion of the Jumbo squid, Dosidicus gigas, on the high
seas of the Peruvian region in relation to anomalous oceanographic

AU: Author
Bendik, AB
SO: Source
International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Palaegade 2-4
DK-1261 Copenhagen Denmark. [vp].

The research cruise of the RV "Atlantniro" (June-November, 1991) was
aimed to investigate reasons of an unusual high abundance of the Jumbo
squid off the exclusive economic zone of Peru. It was discovered that
this anomalous situation happened because of the large-scale advection
of the warm tropical waters southward. These waters carried large
aggregations of the Jumbo squid into high seas. Simultaneously, a
contrary flux of the cold Peruvian Current was intensified. The
gradient zone between these waters has been used by the Jumbo squid to
forage, as well as by some other predators such as skipjack tuna. This
squid abundance explosion allowed the introduction of a large-scale
fishery targeting D.gigas.
PY: Publication Year
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